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優異      |      優秀      |      高級      |      中級      |      初級


“365体育亚洲版語文能力大綱2012版——閱讀”對五個主要語言能力等級作出描述:優異,優秀,高級,中級及初級。The description of each major level represents a specific range of capabilities。These levels are aggregated into a hierarchy in which each level covers all levels below it。The three main grades of senior, intermediate and primary are divided into three secondary grades of higher, middle and elementary respectively。The breakdown of the advanced level is new, making the description of reading similar to that of other skill levels。

Reading is an interpretive skill。閱讀理解主要基於讀者從文本中歸納出的資訊及其在文本內外所能作出的推斷和聯繫。通過描述讀者根據不同類型的文本及在不同類型的環境下能夠完成的任務,閱讀語言能力大綱對讀者如何理解書面文本進行描述。大綱並不描述如何發展閱讀技能、如何學習閱讀、或是在閱讀活動中涉及的實際認知過程。The outline is intended to describe what the reader can understand from what he or she reads。





優異水準的讀者能夠理解非常廣泛的不同類型的文本,包括專業、技術、學術及文學。這些文本具有以下一個或幾個特點:高度抽象、精確或用詞獨特、資訊密集、引經據典或結構複雜。Readers can understand implicit information, tone, and ideas, and follow persuasive arguments。They can read unexpected turns of mind related to complex topics。

優異水準的讀者能夠理解專為特定讀者而寫的作品,也能理解語言若干種歷史性、地域性及口語化的變異。These readers can appreciate the richness of the language being written。優異水準的讀者能夠讀懂並欣賞使用高度精確但通常少見的詞彙以及複雜的修辭結構來傳達細微或高度專業化資訊的文本,這些文本通常為短文長度,但也有可能是更長文本的節選。


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優秀水準的讀者能夠理解很多無論自己熟悉與否的涉及廣泛主題的文本,其理解力不受對主題熟悉程度的限制,而是來自對語言的掌握,這種掌握源於廣博的詞彙量、對複雜結構的理解以及對目標文化的瞭解。Good readers are able to draw inferences from clues outside the text and language。

優秀水準的讀者能讀懂精確、時常很專業化的詞彙以及複雜語法結構的文本,這些文本包括在學術及職業閱讀中所遇到的論證、意見佐證、假設及使用抽象的語言模式。Such texts tend to be logical and/or analytical and often cite scripture。

Readers at a good level can understand long texts of a professional, academic or literary nature。此外,優秀水準的讀者通常能夠體會到語言的美學屬性及其文學風格,但可能無法完全理解含有深層次文化典故及假定的文本。

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Advanced readers will be able to understand authentic narrative and describe the main points and supporting details of the text。Readers can use contextual cues to make up for their lack of knowledge of vocabulary and grammatical structure。與之類似,語言規範方面的知識(例如名詞/形容詞一致、動詞定位等)也可以輔助理解。如果對主題熟悉,高級水準的讀者還能從簡單的論證式文本中獲取部分含義(例如發現主要論點)。

Advanced readers can understand clearly structured and predictable text。Most of the time, the articles are uncomplicated, and the topics are relevant to real-world topics of concern。

Advanced readers can read new topics independently。They have enough of a grasp of standard language specifications to understand sequences, time frames, and time sequences。However, texts that address issues in the abstract are likely to present challenges for these readers。

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Senior high

Senior high水準的讀者能夠完整輕鬆地理解任何長度的規範的敘述及描述文本以及更加複雜的事實性材料。They can read parts of an argumentative text in a specific area of interest or knowledge。In addition, they can read text on parts of unfamiliar topics or situations。These readers are able to go beyond understanding the facts of the text and begin to understand the author's intended implications。Their ignorance of the aesthetic nature of language and its style enables them to understand many types of text。Misunderstandings may occur when reading texts that are structurally and/or conceptually complex。

Senior secondary

Senior secondary水準的讀者能夠讀懂普通的敘述及描述文本,例如對人物、地點及事物的擴展描述以及對過去、現在及未來事件的敘述。這些文本反映出語言書面形式的標準語言規範,其方式使得讀者能夠預測到他們將要讀到的內容。Readers can read the main points, facts, and many supporting details。Comprehension comes not only from an understanding of the situation and subject, but also from an understanding of the language itself。Readers at this level can derive some meaning from texts that are structurally and/or conceptually complex。

The senior elementary

The senior elementary水準的讀者能夠讀懂基本結構清晰的普通敘述及描述文本,儘管他們的理解可能不太均衡。Most of these texts contain high frequency words and structures。讀者能讀懂主要觀點以及部分佐證細節,理解力可能往往來自對情形及主題的瞭解。Readers at this level will have difficulty reading more complex texts。


At an intermediate level, the reader understands the information conveyed in simple, predictable, loosely connected text。Readers rely mainly on contextual cues。They are most likely to understand information if it is a familiar text pattern, such as a weather forecast or a social statement。

中級水準的讀者能夠讀懂傳達基本資訊的文本,例如在聲明、通知、線上公告板和論壇中包含的文本。These texts are not complex and have predictable presentation patterns。There are few connections between utterances, which are basically composed of a single sentence and a series of sentences with a large number of high-frequency words。

Intermediate level readers are most accurate when deriving meaning from simple, straightforward text。They can understand information contained in a highly familiar everyday context。這個水準的讀者可能無法完全理解充滿細節的文本,或是那些需要具備語言結構知識以理解次序、時間框架及時間順序的文本。


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Intermediate higher

Intermediate higher水準的讀者能夠完整輕鬆地理解傳達基本資訊的簡短且不複雜的文本,憑借個人興趣或知識,應對個人及社會話題。這一水準的讀者還能讀懂一部分帶有描述及敘述的連貫文本,不過由於其在詞彙、結構以及語言書寫規範方面的知識有限,理解上會偶爾出現空白。

Intermediate medium

Intermediate medium水準的讀者能夠理解傳達基本資訊的簡短且不複雜的和涉及個人興趣或知識的基本個人及社會話題的文本,不過可能出現一些誤解。如果是熟悉的話題,這個水準的讀者或許能從帶有描述及敘述的簡短連貫文本中獲取一定含義。

Intermediate elementary

Intermediate elementary水準的讀者能夠從涉及有限的個人及社會需求的最簡單的連貫文本中理解部分資訊,不過閱讀中可能會頻頻出現誤解。Readers at this level will have difficulty understanding the meaning of a coherent text of any length。


Beginner readers can understand keywords and cognates, as well as stereotyped phrases that are highly contextual。


Beginner readers understand the text best when they can predict the information。At the elementary level, recognition of keywords, cognates, and stereotype phrases makes comprehension possible。


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Junior high

Junior high水準的讀者能夠完整且比較輕鬆地理解一系列與語境高度一致的文本中的關鍵字和同源詞以及模式化短語。如果學過詞彙,他們可以讀懂可預测的語言和訊息,例如列車時刻表、地圖及路牌上的語言。Junior high水準的讀者通常能夠借助語境或語言之外的輔助,從傳達基本資訊的簡短且不複雜的文本中獲取其含義。

Junior middle

Junior middle水準的讀者能夠識別字母表或音節書寫系統的字母或符號,或是字元語言中的有限幾個字元。他們能夠識別若干個與語境高度一致的詞和短語,包括同源詞和外來詞,但極少能夠理解超出單個短語的材料。Repeat reading is often required。

Primary elementary

An elementary reader can recognize a limited number of letters, symbols, or characters。They can occasionally recognize high-frequency words and/or phrases supported by good context。