Title

聽力

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優異      |      優秀      |      高級      |      中級      |      初級

序言

The actfl Language Proficiency Syllabus 2012 -- Listening describes the five main language proficiency levels: Excellent, Excellent, Advanced, Intermediate and Elementary。The description of each major level represents a specific range of capabilities。These levels are aggregated into a hierarchy in which each level covers all levels below it。The three main grades of senior, intermediate and primary are divided into three secondary grades of higher, middle and elementary respectively。The subdivision of advanced levels into advanced, intermediate and elementary levels is new, making the description of listening similar to that of other skill levels。

Listening is the ability to understand and interpret。Listening comprehension is mainly based on the information that listeners can infer from what they hear and the inferences and connections they can make。By describing the listener's ability to perform tasks for different types of oral texts and in different types of contexts, the listening Language Competency syllabus describes how listeners comprehend oral discourse。The syllabus does not describe how to develop listening skills, how to learn to listen, or the actual cognitive processes involved in this activity。The outline is intended to describe what the listener understands from what he hears。

Outlines can be used in both interpretative (non-participatory, overheard) and interpersonal (participatory) contexts。

Written descriptions of listening levels are available online with authentic speaking samples and practical listening tasks for each major level。

The actfl Language Proficiency Syllabus 2012 -- Listening is for non-profit, educational use only. It must be reproduced in full, without alteration, and must be attributed to actfl。


優異

Excellent listeners understand the variety of forms, styles, and registers of speech that address highly specialized topics to different audiences using language at their discretion。They can understand the language used in classical plays, art house films, professional discussions, academic debates, public policy statements, literary readings, and most jokes and puns。They understand implied and implied information, tone, and ideas, and can follow highly persuasive arguments。They can understand unexpected turns of mind related to complex topics。In addition, their listening skills are enhanced by a wide and profound understanding of cultural allusions and metaphors。Excellent listeners appreciate the richness of the language they hear。

Excellent listeners can understand speech that is highly abstract, highly specialized, or both, as well as speech that contains very precise, often rare vocabulary and complex rhetorical structures。At this level, listeners can understand long, dense, complex oral discourse with numerous references to cultural allusions, colloquialisms and colloquialisms。In addition, listeners at this level can understand subtle or highly specialized information, as well as the full cultural meaning of very short texts with little or no linguistic redundancy。

The superior listener understands language within a cultural framework and understands the subtleties of the speaker。However, they may still not fully understand certain dialects and non-standard variations of languages。

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優秀

A good listener can understand standard accent speech over a wide range of familiar and less familiar topics。They can keep up with long, complex discourses, such as those used in academic and professional Settings, lectures, lectures and presentations。Their understanding is no longer constrained by familiarity with the subject, but by a mastery of language that comes from a wide vocabulary, an understanding of more complex structures, and linguistic experience in the target culture。優秀水準的聽者不僅能夠聽懂所聽到的語言,而且有時能聽出弦外之音;也就是說,他們能作出推斷。

Good listeners understand speech that uses precise, specialized vocabulary and complex grammatical structures。This kind of talk usually discusses issues abstractly in a way that is appropriate for academic and professional audiences. It may be logical or contain cultural allusions。

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高級

Advanced listeners can understand the main points and most supporting details in coherent discourse on a wide range of topics of general interest, such as news reports, explanations, illustrations, anecdotes, or travel descriptions。Listeners can make up for their deficiencies in vocabulary and language structure with the help of realistic knowledge and contextual cues。Listeners can also derive more meaning from the spoken text if they are familiar with the topic or context。

Advanced listeners can understand authentic, coherent speech。The vocabulary and structure of this kind of speech are not complicated。The speech is straightforward, and the structure is usually clear and without unexpected twists。

Advanced listeners demonstrate understanding on topics of general interest。They have sufficient knowledge of language structures and can understand basic timeframe references。However, their understanding is mostly limited to concrete ordinary speech。

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高级高等

Advanced listeners can easily and confidently understand general narrative and descriptive text of any length as well as complex factual material such as summaries or reports。They are usually able to follow some of the basic points of a more complex or demonstrative speech in their particular area of interest or knowledge。In addition, they are able to extract partial meaning from oral texts on unfamiliar topics or situations。At a higher level, the listener is able to understand the facts presented by the spoken word, and is often able to pick up on the speaker's intended cues。However, there may be gaps in their understanding of abstractly complex text, which is normally understood by good listeners。

高级中等

Advanced intermediate listeners can understand ordinary narrative and descriptive texts, such as extended descriptions of people, places, and things, as well as descriptions of past, present, and future events。Most of the speech follows familiar target language patterns。The listener understands the main facts and many supporting details, and understanding comes not only from an understanding of the situation and the subject, but also from an increasing general proficiency in the language itself。

高级初等

Advanced elementary level listeners are able to understand short, common narratives and descriptive texts with a clear basic structure, although their understanding may be uneven。The listener understands the main facts and some supporting details, and understanding may often come from an understanding of the situation and topic。

中級

Intermediate listeners are able to understand simple, sentence-length speech that conveys information about familiar or everyday topics。They are usually able to understand one sentence at a time during face-to-face conversations or during routine listening tasks, such as highly contextual messages, straightforward announcements, or simple instructions or instructions。The listener relies on redundancy, redescription, rephrasing, and contextual cues。

Intermediate listeners can understand speech that conveys basic information。This kind of speech is simple, has little coherence and contains high frequency words。

Intermediate listeners are most accurate when deriving meaning from simple, straightforward speech。They can understand information contained in a highly familiar everyday context。Intermediate listeners need a controlled listening environment where they hear what they expect to hear。

 

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中级高等

Intermediate and advanced listeners can understand simple, sentence-length speech with ease and confidence in basic personal and social contexts。They derive a great deal of meaning from a coherent text that high-level listeners would normally understand, but often have gaps in their understanding due to their limited knowledge of the vocabulary and structure of the spoken language。

中级中等

Intermediate listeners can understand simple sentence-length speech, one sentence at a time, in multiple basic personal and social contexts。Their understanding of highly familiar and predictable topics is mostly accurate, though some misunderstandings still occur。An intermediate level listener may be able to derive some meaning from a spoken text that is normally understood by an advanced level listener。

中级初等

In basic personal and social contexts, intermediate and elementary listeners are able to pick up part of a sentence length speech one sentence at a time。They have little or no understanding of spoken text that is normally understood by advanced level listeners。

初級

Beginner listeners understand keywords that are highly contextually consistent and highly predictive, true acoustic cognates, and stylized expressions such as those included in introductions and basic greetings。

Beginner listeners can understand words and phrases in simple questions, statements, and high-frequency commands。They often need to repeat, restate, and/or slow down to understand。They rely primarily on extralingual AIDS for meaning。

Beginner listeners were most accurate when it came to identifying speech they could anticipate。In this case, the listener is often identifying rather than really understanding。Their hearing depends heavily on factors other than the information itself。

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初级高等

Low-level and advanced listeners often but not always understand information from sentence-length speech one sentence at a time in basic personal and social contexts with contextual or extralingual assistance, although their comprehension may often be uneven。If vocabulary has been learned, they can understand speech that is relevant to actual needs, such as highly standardized messages, phrases or instructions。

初级中等

Beginner level listeners can identify and begin to understand several high-frequency, highly context-consistent words and phrases, including acoustic cognates and loanwords。Generally, they can understand more or less one phrase at a time and may need to repeat it。

初级初等

Beginner listeners can occasionally recognize individual words with strong contextual support or phrases with high frequency。Even in the most basic personal and social contexts, listeners at this level are largely unable to understand any type of verbal message。