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寫作

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優異      |      優秀      |      高級      |      中級      |      初級

序言

“365体育亚洲版語文能力大綱2012版——寫作“對五個主要語言能力等級作出描述:優異,優秀,高級,中級及初級。The description of each major level represents a specific range of capabilities。These levels are aggregated into a hierarchy in which each level covers all levels below it。The three main grades of senior, intermediate and primary are divided into three secondary grades of higher, middle and elementary respectively。

大綱對寫作者在各等級所能完成的任務以及與各等級寫作任務相關的內容、語境、準確程度以及話語類型作出描述。The outline also indicates the limits the writer can reach in trying to reach the next higher major level。

這些大綱可以用來描述表達有目的性的寫作文本(短文、報告、信件),也可以描述人際交流型的文本(即時訊息、電郵通信、短信)。而且既可以將其用於自髮式寫作(即時的、未經編輯的),也可以用於反思式寫作(修改、編輯過的)。This is possible because the outline describes the work of writing, not the process or purpose of writing。

Written descriptions of writing standards are available online with writing samples to illustrate the characteristics of each major level。

“365体育亚洲版語文能力大綱2012版——寫作“僅供非營利,教育目的使用,使用時必須全文照錄,不得更改,並需注明來源為365体育亚洲版。


優異

Excellent writers can complete formal writing tasks such as official correspondence, position statements, and journal articles。They can write analytically on professional, academic, and social issues。In addition, high-caliber writers can discuss international issues in a highly conceptual way。

優異水準的寫作者的代表技巧是可以使用勸說型及假設型的話語,這使得他們可以擁護一個並非是自己的立場。They can also express subtlety。The article of excellent standard is rich in connotation, face is also rich in connotation reader。處於這個水準的寫作者為其讀者而寫作;他們為了讀者而修改自己的語言。

優異水準的文章密集而複雜;但是,表達簡練仍是其特點。The essay is well written and structured in a way that reflects the mindset of the target culture。For excellence, length is not the determining factor。Excellent texts can be as short as poetry or as long as a monograph。

Excellent writers demonstrate a mastery of complex vocabulary, grammar, syntax, and stylistic features。Discourse structure and punctuation are also used with skill, not only to make meaning coherent, but also to deepen it。The idiomatic expressions used are mostly suitable for the text modality and target culture。

 

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優秀

優秀水準的寫作者可以就多種社會、學術及專業議題撰寫大多數類型的正式及非正式信函、深度概要、報告以及研究論文。Their discussion of these issues went beyond the concrete level to the abstract。

優秀水準的寫作者展現出解釋複雜事物的能力,並能用有力的論辯和假設來展示意見並加以佐證。Their discussion of issues is enhanced by the effective use of structure, vocabulary, and writing conventions。They organize and prioritize ideas to convey what is important to the reader。由於遵循組織、闡述原則(例如因果、對比、時間順序),觀點之間的關係自始至終都很清楚。該水準的寫作者能夠就一個論題展開詳盡討論,這通常要有至少幾個段落,但也可以擴展到幾頁的篇幅。

優秀水準的寫作者顯示出對語法和句法、通用及專業/職業詞彙、拼寫或符號書寫、銜接手段及標點的熟練掌握。Their vocabulary is precise and varied。這個水準的寫作者為其讀者寫作;他們流暢的寫作減輕了讀者的負擔。

Good writers often have no grasp of the culture, organization, or stylistic patterns of the target language。在優秀水準上,寫作者不表現出任何錯誤模式,但可能會偶爾犯一些錯誤,特別是在低頻率的結構中。These errors, when they occur, do not interfere with comprehension and are rarely distracting for native readers。

 

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高級

高級水準寫作者的特點是能夠撰寫常規的非正式及部分正式信函,以及屬於事實性質的敘述、描寫和概要。他們可以在過去、現在和將來的主要時間框架內進行敘述和描寫,通過變換措辭或詳細闡述使文章清晰。Advanced writers are able to write coherent paragraphs with clear structure。在這個水準上,寫作者顯現出對最常用結構及通用詞彙的良好掌握,因此不熟悉非母語寫作的讀者也能理解他們。

 

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Senior high

Advanced writers are able to write with great precision and detail on multiple topics。They can write informal and formal letters with appropriate usage techniques。They can write factual summaries and reports。他們還可以就特定興趣或特別專業領域有關的話題作長篇著述,儘管其寫作往往側重於這些話題的具體方面。Advanced writers can confidently narrate and write within the main time frame。此外,他們能夠展示出應對優秀水準的相關寫作任務的能力,例如闡述論證及構建假設,但無法自始至終保持這個水準;在涉及一系列需要抽象或概括討論的話題時,他們無法持續寫出優秀水準的文章。They have a good command of a range of grammatical structures and a fairly broad general vocabulary。在高級水準寫作時,他們大多顯示出出色的自如表達,但是在優秀水準的寫作任務要求下,會出現錯誤模式。The limitations of higher-level writing may occasionally distract native readers from the message。

Senior secondary

Senior intermediate level writers can meet a range of job and/or academic writing needs。They have shown an ability to give a detailed narrative and description within all major time frames and to manage it well。They can write clear summaries on topics of general interest。他們的寫作在長達數段的文本中表現出多種銜接技巧,對目的語中最常用的句法結構以及一定範圍的通用詞彙有良好掌握。The most common is to express and demonstrate ideas clearly with a certain amount of elaboration。This type of writing combines the structural features of both the target language and the writer's native language, and sometimes resembles spoken expression。Native speakers unfamiliar with writing in a non-native language can easily read writing at an advanced and intermediate level。如果讓他們應對優秀水準的相關任務或討論問題,Senior secondary水準寫作者的寫作品質及/或數量都會明顯下降。

The senior elementary

Advanced elementary level writers are able to meet basic work and/or academic writing needs。They have a certain assurance of narrative and description in all major time frames。They can draw up simple summaries of familiar topics。Advanced elementary writers are able to connect sentence combinations to the length and structure of paragraphs。While their writing may be of a high standard, it is not necessarily substantive。Advanced elementary writers are able to use a limited number of cohesive devices, and their writing may be lengthy or repetitive。They rely on patterns of oral presentation and writing styles in their mother tongue。These writers barely have a grasp of the common structures and vocabulary associated with advanced levels。Native speakers unfamiliar with non-native writing can read their writing, but may have to put more effort into reading the text。If they try to complete tasks related to excellence, their writing will decline significantly。

中級

中級水準寫作者的特點是能夠滿足實務寫作的需要,例如簡單的訊息和信件、資訊諮詢以及便箋。In addition, they can ask and respond to simple questions in writing。這些寫作者可以用語言進行創作,使用一系列鬆散連接起來的句子,就個人興趣及社會需要的話題溝通簡單的事實和觀點。They write mainly in the present tense。在這個水準上,寫作者使用可以讓那些習慣非母語寫作的讀者理解的基本的詞彙和結構來表達含義。

 

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Intermediate higher

Intermediate advanced level writers can meet all the practical writing needs of intermediate level writers。In addition, they can draft essays and brief summaries related to their work and/or school experiences。When writing about everyday events and situations, they are able to narrate and describe in different time frames。這些敘述和描寫經常但不總是能夠形成段落,並經常有跡象顯示其未能涵蓋一個或多個高級水準特點。For example, these writers failed to consistently use appropriate primary time markers and were thus unclear。The vocabulary, grammar and style of intermediate advanced writers are basically the same as oral language。即使帶有很多可能很明顯的錯誤,Intermediate higher水準的寫作一般來說可以為不習慣非母語寫作的母語人士所理解,不過可能會有一些理解上的空白。

Intermediate medium

Intermediate level writers can meet some of the practical writing needs。他們能用連接鬆散的文字就個人喜好、日常慣例、普通事件以及其他個人話題寫出簡短、簡單的通信、作文。They write in the present tense, but may refer to other time frames。The writing style is very close to oral presentation。Intermediate level writers demonstrate mastery of basic sentence structure and verb form。對這類寫作的最佳定義是一系列鬆散連接在一起的獨立句子及/或問題,少見有深思熟慮的結構。Native readers who are familiar with writing in a non-native language can easily understand the work of an intermediate writer。Intermediate medium水準寫作者在試圖完成高級水準的寫作任務時,其寫作品質及/或數量會下降,訊息可能含糊不清。

Intermediate elementary

Intermediate and elementary level writers can meet limited practical writing needs。They can write statements and list questions from familiar material。多數句子是所學過的詞彙和結構的重新組合,是用基本詞彙順序組成的簡短的簡單對話風格的句子。They are written almost entirely in the present tense。Writing often consists of a few simple sentences, and the structure is often repeated。Topics are limited to highly predictive content areas and personal information。Vocabulary is sufficient to express basic needs。There may be some basic errors in grammar, word choice, punctuation, spelling, and combinations of non-alphabetic symbols。Native readers who are familiar with non-native writing can understand their writing, though this may require additional effort。Intermediate elementary水準寫作者試圖完成高級水準的寫作任務時,他們的寫作水準將明顯下降,他們的資訊可能會不完整。

初級

Beginner writers are characterized by the ability to write lists and notes, mainly by writing words and phrases。They can provide limited stylized information in simple forms and files。These writers can rewrite the material they practice to convey the simplest message。此外,他們能夠謄寫熟悉的詞或短語,抄錄字母表的字母或音節表的音節,或部分準確地重寫基底字元。

 

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Junior high

Advanced level writers can accomplish a limited amount of basic practical writing using lists, texts, postcards, and simple notes。With the material they have practiced, they are able to express themselves in the context of the language they are learning。Their writing concentrates on the ordinary elements of everyday life。Junior high寫作者能夠重組學過的詞彙和結構,就非常熟悉的話題简单造句,但是不能始終保持成句寫作。Due to a lack of vocabulary and/or grammar, writing at this level may only partially convey the writer's intention。Native speakers familiar with non-native writing can usually understand writing at an advanced level, but there may be gaps in understanding。

Junior middle

Beginner level writers can rewrite a certain number of words and phrases in context from memory。他們可以在簡單的表格和檔上填寫有限的資訊以及其它基本的個人資訊,例如姓名、數位及國籍。在使用有限的程式化語言寫作經常練習的熟悉話題時,Junior middle水準寫作者顯示出很高的準確性。For less familiar topics, accuracy is significantly reduced。Errors in spelling or notation may occur frequently。Practical writing skills are rarely demonstrated。Even for those familiar with non-native writers, this level of writing may be difficult to understand。

Primary elementary

Primary elementary水準的寫作者能夠抄錄或謄寫熟悉的詞或短語,在字母表體系中書寫字母,在使用音節表或字元的語言中抄錄和書寫單獨的基本筆劃。如果時間充足並有熟悉的提示,他們能夠憑記憶重寫出數目非常有限的單個詞語或熟悉的短語,但會出現錯誤。