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阅读

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优异      |      优秀      |      高级      |      中级      |      初级

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“actfl语文能力大纲2012版——阅读”对五个主要语言能力等级作出描述:优异,优秀,高级,中级及初级。The description of each major level represents a specific range of capabilities。These levels are aggregated into a hierarchy in which each level covers all levels below it。The three main grades of senior, intermediate and primary are divided into three secondary grades of higher, middle and elementary respectively。The advanced level breakdown is new, making the description of reading similar to that of other skill levels。

reading is an interpretive skill。reading comprehension is mainly based on the information that readers can infer from the text and the inferences and connections they can make inside and outside the text。通过描述读者根据不同类型的文本及在不同类型的环境下能够完成的任务,阅读语言能力大纲对读者如何理解书面文本进行描述。大纲并不描述如何发展阅读技能、如何学习阅读、或是在阅读活动中涉及的实际认知过程。The outline is intended to describe what the reader can understand from what he or she reads。

大纲可用于理解诠释型阅读(书籍、短文、报告等),也可用于人际型阅读(即时讯息、短信、电邮通信等)。

对阅读水平的书面描述在网上配有地道的文本样本,以及每个主要等级相应的实用阅读任务。

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优异

Excellent readers can understand a wide range of different types of texts, including professional, technical, academic and literary。这些文本具有以下一个或几个特点:高度抽象、精确或用词独特、信息密集、引经据典或结构复杂。Readers can understand the underlying message, tone, and point of view, and follow persuasive arguments。They can read unexpected turns of mind related to complex topics。

优异水平的读者能够理解专为特定读者而写的作品,也能理解语言若干种历史性、地域性及口语化的变异。These readers can appreciate the richness of the language being written。优异水平的读者能够读懂并欣赏使用高度精确但通常少见的词汇以及复杂的修辞结构来传达细微或高度专业化信息的文本,这些文本通常为短文长度,但也有可能是更长文本的节选。

优异水平的读者从文化框架之内理解语言,并能理解作者的细腻微妙之处,但是他们可能仍无法完全理解书面语言的某些非标准变异。

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优秀

优秀水平的读者能够理解很多无论自己熟悉与否的涉及广泛主题的文本,其理解力不受对主题熟悉程度的限制,而是来自对语言的掌握,这种掌握源于广博的词汇量、对复杂结构的理解以及对目标文化的了解。Good readers are able to draw inferences from clues outside the text and language。

优秀水平的读者能读懂精确、时常很专业化的词汇以及复杂语法结构的文本,这些文本包括在学术及职业阅读中所遇到的论证、意见佐证、假设及使用抽象的语言模式。Such texts tend to be logical and/or analytical and often cite scripture。

Readers at a good level can understand long texts of a professional, academic or literary nature。此外,优秀水平的读者通常能够体会到语言的美学属性及其文学风格,但可能无法完全理解含有深层次文化典故及假定的文本。

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高级

Advanced readers will be able to understand idiomatic narration and describe the main points and supporting details in the text。Readers can use contextual cues to make up for their lack of knowledge of vocabulary and grammatical structure。与之类似,语言规范方面的知识(例如名词/形容词一致、动词定位等)也可以辅助理解。如果对主题熟悉,高级水平的读者还能从简单的论证式文本中获取部分含义(例如发现主要论点)。

Advanced readers can understand clearly structured and predictable text。Most of the time, the articles are uncomplicated, and the topics are relevant to real-world topics of concern。

Advanced readers can read new topics independently。They have enough of a grasp of standard language specifications to understand sequences, time frames, and time sequences。However, texts that address issues in the abstract are likely to present challenges for these readers。

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高级高等

高级高等水平的读者能够完整轻松地理解任何长度的规范的叙述及描述文本以及更加复杂的事实性材料。They can read parts of an argumentative text in a specific area of interest or knowledge。In addition, they can read text on parts of unfamiliar topics or situations。These readers are able to go beyond understanding the facts of the text and begin to understand the author's intended implications。Their ignorance of the aesthetic nature of language and its style enables them to understand many types of text。Misunderstandings may occur when reading texts that are structurally and/or conceptually complex。

高级中等

高级中等水平的读者能够读懂普通的叙述及描述文本,例如对人物、地点及事物的扩展描述以及对过去、现在及未来事件的叙述。这些文本反映出语言书面形式的标准语言规范,其方式使得读者能够预测到他们将要读到的内容。Readers can read the main points, facts, and many supporting details。Comprehension comes not only from an understanding of the situation and subject, but also from an understanding of the language itself。Readers at this level can derive some meaning from texts that are structurally and/or conceptually complex。

高级初等

高级初等水平的读者能够读懂基本结构清晰的普通叙述及描述文本,尽管他们的理解可能不太均衡。Most of these texts contain high frequency words and structures。Readers can understand the main ideas and some supporting details, and understanding may often come from an understanding of the situation and topic。Readers at this level will have difficulty reading more complex texts。


中级

At an intermediate level, the reader understands the message of simple, predictable, loosely connected text。Readers rely mainly on contextual cues。They are most likely to understand information if it is a familiar text pattern, such as a weather forecast or a social statement。

中级水平的读者能够读懂传达基本信息的文本,例如在声明、通知、在线公告板和论坛中包含的文本。These texts are not complex and have predictable presentation patterns。There are few connections between utterances, which are basically composed of a single sentence and a series of sentences with a large number of high-frequency words。

Intermediate readers are most accurate when deriving meaning from simple, straightforward text。They can understand information contained in a highly familiar everyday context。这个水平的读者可能无法完全理解充满细节的文本,或是那些需要具备语言结构知识以理解次序、时间框架及时间顺序的文本。

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中级高等

中级高等水平的读者能够完整轻松地理解传达基本信息的简短且不复杂的文本,凭借个人兴趣或知识,应对个人及社会话题。这一水平的读者还能读懂一部分带有描述及叙述的连贯文本,不过由于其在词汇、结构以及语言书写规范方面的知识有限,理解上会偶尔出现空白。

中级中等

中级中等水平的读者能够理解传达基本信息的简短且不复杂的和涉及个人兴趣或知识的基本个人及社会话题的文本,不过可能出现一些误解。如果是熟悉的话题,这个水平的读者或许能从带有描述及叙述的简短连贯文本中获取一定含义。

中级初等

中级初等水平的读者能够从涉及有限的个人及社会需求的最简单的连贯文本中理解部分信息,不过阅读中可能会频频出现误解。Readers at this level will have difficulty understanding the meaning of coherent text of any length。


初级

Beginner readers can understand keywords and cognates, as well as stereotyped phrases that are highly context-consistent。

初级水平的读者能够从对话题或语境非常熟悉的具高预测性的文本中获得有限数量的信息,例如旅馆账单、信用卡收据或天气图。初级水平的读者主要依赖他们自己的背景知识和语言以外的辅助(例如天气图上的图像或信用卡账单的格式)来获取含义。

Beginner readers understand the text best when they can predict the information。At the primary level, recognition of keywords, cognates, and stereotype phrases makes comprehension possible。

 

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初级高等

初级高等水平的读者能够完整且比较轻松地理解一系列与语境高度一致的文本中的关键词和同源词以及模式化短语。如果学过词汇,他们可以读懂可预测的语言和讯息,例如列车时刻表、地图及路牌上的语言。初级高等水平的读者通常能够借助语境或语言之外的辅助,从传达基本信息的简短且不复杂的文本中获取其含义。

初级中等

初级中等水平的读者能够识别字母表或音节书写系统的字母或符号,或是字符语言中的有限几个字符。他们能够识别若干个与语境高度一致的词和短语,包括同源词和外来词,但极少能够理解超出单个短语的材料。Repeat reading is often required。

初级初等

Beginner readers can recognize a limited number of letters, symbols, or characters。They can occasionally recognize high-frequency words and/or phrases supported by good context。