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口语

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优异      |      优秀      |      高级      |      中级      |      初级

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The 365体育亚洲版 Language Proficiency Syllabus 2012 -- Speaking describes the five main language proficiency levels: Excellent, Excellent, Advanced, Intermediate and Elementary。The description of each major level represents a specific range of capabilities。These levels are aggregated into a hierarchy in which each level covers all levels below it。The three main grades of senior, intermediate and primary are divided into three secondary grades of higher, middle and elementary respectively。

The outline describes what speakers can accomplish at each level and the content, context, accuracy, and type of conversation associated with each level of task。The outline also shows the limits that speakers can reach in trying to reach the next higher major level。

An outline can be used to assess interpersonal communication (interactive, two-way) or presentation (one-way, non-interactive)。

Written descriptions of spoken language levels are available online with spoken language samples to illustrate the characteristics of each major level。

The 365体育亚洲版 Language Proficiency Program 2012 -- Speaking is for non-profit, educational use only. It must be reproduced in full and cannot be altered, and must be attributed to 365体育亚洲版。


优异

Excellent speakers use language proficiently, accurately, concisely, and effectively。They are educated, articulate speakers of language。They are able to think about broad holistic issues and highly abstract concepts in culturally appropriate ways。Superior speakers can use persuasive and hypothetical language for positional purposes, but they are not necessarily expressing their own opinions。They can tailor their speeches to different audiences and use culturally appropriate expressions。

Excellent speakers produce words that are skilled, compact, and detailed。At the same time, their speeches can be concise and to the point, often using cultural and historical allusions to make them concise and comprehensive。Spoken language at this level is usually close to written language。

Languages at this level may still have non-native accents, a lack of native conciseness, limited control over deep cultural allusions, and/or occasional individual language errors。

 

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优秀

Top performers communicate accurately and fluently, fully and effectively in formal and informal Settings on a wide range of topics at both concrete and abstract levels。They can discuss their interests and special areas of competence, explain complex affairs in detail, and describe coherently at a certain length, speak eloquently and accurately。They are able to express their opinions on topics of interest to them, such as social and political topics, and to back them up with structured arguments。They can construct and develop hypotheses to explore alternative possibilities。

When appropriate, even in abstract exposition, these speakers can make their points in longer sentences without being unnaturally long and hesitant。Although such discourse is coherent, it may still be influenced by language patterns other than the target language。Good speakers use a variety of interaction and speech techniques, such as taking turns, using syntax, vocabulary, and phonology to separate main ideas from supporting information。

Good speakers do not show error patterns in their use of basic sentence structures, but may make sporadic errors, especially in low-frequency and complex high-frequency sentences。Even if these errors occur, they do not bother native speakers or affect their communication。

 

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高级

Advanced level speakers join the conversation with active participation, exchanging information on topics relevant to their personal lives as well as community, national and international topics。They address these topics in narrative and descriptive terms in the past, present, and major time frames of the future。These speakers can also deal with social situations of unexpected complexity。If the oral paragraph is used as the standard of advanced level and discourse, advanced level speakers are rich in language。Their mastery of basic syntactic structures and common vocabulary is such that native speakers of the language, including those less accustomed to speaking in a non-native language, can understand the language。

 

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Senior high

Advanced level speakers can use language to perform all advanced level tasks with ease, confidence, and competence。They are always able to elaborate, complete and accurate in all time frames。In addition, advanced speakers can speak at an excellent level, but have trouble covering multiple topics at this level。They may offer coherent arguments to support their opinions, or they may construct hypotheses that show false patterns。They can discuss some topics abstractly, especially those related to their specific interests and areas of expertise, but in general, they are more comfortable with specific discussions about various topics。

Senior high水平讲话者可能会通过有效使用变换措辞、迂回释义及举例说明等交流技巧,来弥补未能充分掌握某些惯用语句或词汇量不足的缺陷,以展示出很好的语言能力。They use a precise vocabulary and intonation to convey their meaning, and most of the time their speech is smooth and deliberate。然而,如果要求他们就多个话题完成优秀水平的相关任务,他们的语言会不时出现障碍或表现得辞不达意;他们也可能用诸如描述或叙述的简化方式,来取代论辩或假设,以规避任务。

Senior secondary

Advanced and mid-level speakers can handle many communication tasks with ease and confidence。他们能够在大部分非正式及部分正式场合积极地参与涉及工作、学校、家庭及休闲活动的多个具体话题讨论,以及涉及时事、公共事务、个人兴趣或与自己相关的话题。

Advanced medium speakers demonstrate narrative and descriptive skills through complete presentations and a grasp of scope in major time frames past, present and future。Its narrative and description are often combined and interwoven, bringing the relevant auxiliary facts into coherent, segmented discourse。

Senior secondary水平的讲话者能够在常规情况下或当他们平素熟悉的交流任务语境中出现复杂或出乎意料的情况时,成功并相对轻松地应对由此带来的挑战。They often use communication techniques such as indirect paraphrasing or rephrasing to achieve this goal。When performing advanced level tasks, advanced medium level speakers are characterized by substantial and fluent speech。Their vocabularies are quite extensive, though mostly ordinary in nature, unless they relate to a particular area of expertise or interest。Their speech may still reflect the oral paragraph structure of the native language rather than the target language。

Senior secondary水平的讲话者在很多熟悉的话题上都能从具体层面参与对话,表达大多准确、清晰、精确,而且他们在传达自己想表述的讯息时不会失实或令人困惑。Native speakers who are not used to dealing with non-native speakers can also easily understand their speech。The quality and/or quantity of their speech will generally decline if they are asked to tackle an excellent-level topic or complete related tasks。

The senior elementary

Advanced elementary level speakers can cope with a variety of communication tasks。They can participate in most informal and some formal conversations about school, family, and leisure activities。They can also talk about a number of topics related to work, current affairs, and public and community interests。

Advanced elementary level speakers are able to demonstrate narrative and descriptive skills through paragraph length discourse and a certain mastery of scope in major time frames past, present, and future。In these narratives and descriptions, advanced elementary speakers combine sentences into coherent chunks of discourse, but these narratives and descriptions often seem segmented and incoherent。When complex or unexpected situations arise, they are able to respond appropriately with basic language。

Most responses from senior elementary speakers will not be longer than a paragraph。The speaker's primary language may be obvious due to the use of incorrect cognates, verbatim translations, or the oral paragraph structure of his or her primary language。Their discourse, sometimes at the lowest end of the scale, is marked by fluency and stuttering, and by obvious self-correction。In general, senior elementary speakers tend to be erratic。

Advanced elementary speakers often have grammatical errors (e.g., a spotty grasp of verb endings), but are generally able to perform advanced level tasks, although they are not satisfactory。The vocabulary of advanced elementary speakers usually lacks features。After all, can advanced elementary speakers still use communication techniques such as rephrasing and indirect paraphrasing。

When advanced elementary level speakers participate in a conversation, they are generally able to convey their message accurately, clearly and precisely, without being inaccurate or confusing。Native speakers who are not used to dealing with non-native speakers can also understand their speech, although this may require some repetition or reformulation。The quality and quantity of their language decreased significantly if they were trying to deal with an excellent topic or complete a related task。

中级

The main distinguishing characteristic of intermediate speakers is their linguistic creativity in discussing familiar topics related to their daily lives。They are able to recombine the material they have learned to express their personal meaning。Intermediate speakers can ask simple questions and deal with simple survival challenging situations。Their language is confined to the sentence level, where there are disconnected sentences and clusters of sentences, mostly in the present tense。Interlocutors who are used to working with non-native speakers of the language can understand what intermediate speakers are saying。

 

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Intermediate higher

Intermediate advanced speakers can speak with ease and confidence when dealing with intermediate level routine tasks and social situations。They can successfully handle uncomplicated tasks and social situations when they need to communicate basic information about their work, school, leisure, specific interests and areas of expertise。

Intermediate advanced speakers can perform a significant portion of the tasks associated with advanced level, but they do not perform consistently well on all of these tasks。Intermediate and advanced speakers are often, but not always, able to narrate and describe in coherent paragraphs across all major time frames。In general,Intermediate advanced level speakers are trying to complete advanced level tasks,Their language may exhibit one or more features of the disorder,For example, a complete narrative or description cannot be provided within the appropriate main time frame,Inability to maintain a coherent discourse,Or decreased diversity and appropriateness of words。

不习惯与非母语人士打交道的母语讲话者通常能够明白Intermediate higher水平讲话者的谈话,不过来自另一种语言的干扰可能会很明显(例如,使用语码转换、错误的同源词以及逐字翻译),交流中可能存在一定模式的空白。

Intermediate medium

Mid-level speakers can successfully handle a variety of uncomplicated communication tasks in simple social situations。谈话一般限于那些在目标文化中生存所必需的具体且可以预料到的交谈,包括与个人、家庭、居家、日常活动、爱好以及个人喜好有关的个人信息,还包括生活及社会需求方面的信息,例如食品、购物、旅行及住宿。

Mid-level speakers tend to be reactive, such as responding directly to a question or request for information。But they can ask multiple questions when necessary to get simple information to meet basic needs, such as directions, prices, and services。如果要求他们应对高级水平的话题或完成相关任务,他们会提供部分信息,但是在连接观点、灵活处理时间及范围、使用迂回释义等交流技巧上会感到吃力。

Intermediate medium水平的讲话者能够用语言进行创作,从而表达自己的意思,部分做法是将已知元素及会话信息进行组合及重组,从而作出回答,其构成通常为句子或成串的句子。Their speech may involve pauses, restatements, and self-corrections as they search for sufficient vocabulary and appropriate idiomatic language to express themselves。In spite of limitations in vocabulary and/or pronunciation and/or grammar and/or syntax, interlocutors who are tolerant and accustomed to dealing with non-native speakers can usually understand their conversation。

In general, mid-level speakers completed intermediate level tasks with ease and demonstrated a clear quantity and quality of intermediate level language。

Intermediate elementary

Intermediate and elementary level speakers can create with language in simple social situations and successfully handle a limited number of uncomplicated communication tasks。Conversations are limited to a few specific conversations and predictable topics necessary for survival in the target-language culture。These topics are related to basic personal information, such as personal and family, some daily activities and personal preferences, and some immediate needs, such as ordering food and simple shopping。Middle and elementary speakers respond and grapple primarily with direct questions or information inquiries。They can also ask the right questions。Intermediate and elementary speakers can still manage to complete all intermediate level tasks, although this can be very difficult。

Intermediate and elementary level speakers express themselves by combining and reorganizing information they know and hear from their interlocutors into short statements and disconnected sentences。Their answers are often hesitant and inaccurate as they search for appropriate idioms and words to try to construct the message。Their speeches are marked by frequent pauses, ineffectual recounts and self-corrections。Their pronunciation, vocabulary and syntax are strongly influenced by their native language。尽管Intermediate elementary讲话者频繁出现误解,需要重复或重新叙述,但宽容体谅的对话者、特别是那些习惯与非母语人士打交道的人通常可以明白他们的谈话。

初级

Beginner speakers are able to exchange short messages on everyday topics that are highly predictive and directly affect them。They do this mainly by using isolated words and phrases that they have seen, remembered and can recall。Beginner speakers' language can be difficult to understand even for the most understanding and accustomed non-native speaker。

 

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Junior high

Advanced level speakers can handle multiple intermediate level tasks, but cannot maintain performance at that level。They can successfully complete uncomplicated communication tasks in simple social situations。Conversation is limited to a few predictable topics necessary for survival in the target-language culture, such as basic personal information, basic objects, a few activities, preferences, and immediate needs。Advanced speakers can respond to simple and direct questions or information inquiries。They can also ask generic questions。

Advanced speakers can express their personal meaning, but they rely heavily on phrases or reconstructions learned and on information they hear from their interlocutors。Their language consists mainly of short and often incomplete sentences in the present tense, and can be indecisive or inaccurate。On the other hand, since their language composition is often an accumulation of learned material and stored phrases, they can sometimes show surprising fluency and accuracy。Pronunciation, vocabulary and syntax may be strongly influenced by the mother tongue。Although misunderstandings can be caused from time to time, through repetition or restatement, a junior speaker can generally be understood by an understanding interlocutor accustomed to speaking in a non-native language。If asked to tackle intermediate topics or complete related tasks, junior advanced speakers can sometimes respond with clear sentences, but cannot keep the words in a sentence。

Junior middle

Low-level speakers communicate with a limited number of isolated words and memorized phrases, and are constrained by the specific context in which they learned the language。When answering direct questions, they may only speak two or three words at a time or occasionally give a prepared answer。They often pause as they search for simple words or try to repeat their own and their interlocutor's words。Even for tolerant interlocutors who are used to dealing with non-native speakers, understanding junior level speakers can be difficult。When asked to deal with topics or functions relevant to the intermediate level, they often use repetition, borrowing from their native language, or silence。

Primary elementary

Elementary level speakers have no real ability to use the language and may not be understood at all because of pronunciation。Given enough time and familiar cues, they might be able to greet each other, introduce themselves, and point out a few familiar objects from their surroundings。They can't handle intermediate level topics or tasks, so they can't participate in real conversations。