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优异      |      优秀      |      高级      |      中级      |      初级


“365体育亚洲版语文能力大纲2012版——写作“对五个主要语言能力等级作出描述:优异,优秀,高级,中级及初级。The description of each major level represents a specific range of capabilities。These levels are aggregated into a hierarchy in which each level covers all levels below it。The three main grades of senior, intermediate and primary are divided into three secondary grades of higher, middle and elementary respectively。

大纲对写作者在各等级所能完成的任务以及与各等级写作任务相关的内容、语境、准确程度以及话语类型作出描述。The outline also indicates the limits the writer can reach in trying to reach the next higher major level。

这些大纲可以用来描述表达有目的性的写作文本(短文、报告、信件),也可以描述人际交流型的文本(即时讯息、电邮通信、短信)。而且既可以将其用于自发式写作(即时的、未经编辑的),也可以用于反思式写作(修改、编辑过的)。This is possible because the outline describes the work of writing, not the process or purpose of writing。

Written descriptions of writing levels are available online with writing samples to illustrate the characteristics of each major level。



Excellent writers can complete formal writing tasks, such as business letters, position statements, and journal articles。They can write analytically on professional, academic, and social issues。In addition, excellent writers can discuss international issues in a highly conceptual way。

优异水平的写作者的代表技巧是可以使用劝说型及假设型的话语,这使得他们可以拥护一个并非是自己的立场。They can also express subtlety。Excellent level of the content of the article is rich, for the content of the reader。处于这个水平的写作者为其读者而写作;他们为了读者而修改自己的语言。

优异水平的文章密集而复杂;但是,表达简练仍是其特点。The essay is well written and structured in a way that reflects the mindset of the target culture。For excellence, length is not the determining factor。Excellent texts can be as short as poetry or as long as a monograph。

Excellent writers demonstrate a mastery of complex vocabulary, grammar, syntax, and stylistic features。Discourse structure and punctuation are also used with skill, not only to make meaning coherent, but also to deepen it。The idiomatic expressions used are mostly suitable for the text modality and target culture。


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优秀水平的写作者可以就各种社会、学术及专业议题撰写大多数类型的正式及非正式信函、深度概要、报告以及研究论文。Their discussion of these issues went beyond the concrete level to the abstract。

优秀水平的写作者展现出解释复杂事物的能力,并能用有力的论辩和假设来展示意见并加以佐证。Their discussion of issues is enhanced by the effective use of structure, vocabulary, and writing conventions。They organize and prioritize ideas to convey what is important to the reader。The relationships between ideas are clear from beginning to end due to organization and exposition principles (e.g., causation, contrast, chronological order)。该水平的写作者能够就一个论题展开详尽讨论,这通常要有至少几个段落,但也可以扩展到几页的篇幅。

优秀水平的写作者显示出对语法和句法、通用及专业/职业词汇、拼写或符号书写、衔接手段及标点的熟练掌握。Their vocabulary is precise and varied。这个水平的写作者为其读者写作;他们流畅的写作减轻了读者的负担。

Good writers often have no grasp of the culture, organization, or stylistic patterns of the target language。在优秀水平上,写作者不表现出任何错误模式,但可能会偶尔犯一些错误,特别是在低频率的结构中。These errors, when they occur, do not interfere with comprehension and are rarely distracting for native readers。


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高级水平写作者的特点是能够撰写常规的非正式及部分正式信函,以及属于事实性质的叙述、描写和概要。他们可以在过去、现在和将来的主要时间框架内进行叙述和描写,通过变换措辞或详细阐述使文章清晰。Advanced writers can write coherent sentences in paragraphs and with clear structure。在这个水平上,写作者显现出对最常用结构及通用词汇的良好掌握,因此不熟悉非母语写作的读者也能理解他们。


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Senior high

Advanced writers are able to write with great precision and detail on multiple topics。They can write informal and formal letters with appropriate usage techniques。They can write factual summaries and reports。他们还可以就特定兴趣或特别专业领域有关的话题作长篇著述,尽管其写作往往侧重于这些话题的具体方面。Advanced writers can confidently narrate and write within the main time frame。此外,他们能够展示出应对优秀水平的相关写作任务的能力,例如阐述论证及构建假设,但无法自始至终保持这个水平;在涉及一系列需要抽象或概括讨论的话题时,他们无法持续写出优秀水平的文章。They have a good command of a range of grammatical structures and a fairly broad general vocabulary。在高级水平写作时,他们大多显示出出色的自如表达,但是在优秀水平的写作任务要求下,会出现错误模式。The limitations of advanced writing language may occasionally distract native readers from the message。

Senior secondary

Senior intermediate level writers are able to meet a range of job and/or academic writing needs。They have shown an ability to give a detailed narrative and description within all major time frames and to manage it well。They can write clear summaries on topics of general interest。他们的写作在长达数段的文本中表现出多种衔接技巧,对目的语中最常用的句法结构以及一定范围的通用词汇有良好掌握。The most common is to express and demonstrate ideas clearly with a certain amount of elaboration。This type of writing combines the structural features of both the target language and the writer's native language, and sometimes resembles spoken expression。Native speakers unfamiliar with writing in a non-native language can easily read advanced intermediate level writing。如果让他们应对优秀水平的相关任务或讨论问题,Senior secondary水平写作者的写作质量及/或数量都会明显下降。

The senior elementary

Advanced elementary level writers are able to meet basic work and/or academic writing needs。They have a certain assurance of narrative and description in all major time frames。They can draw up simple summaries of familiar topics。Advanced elementary writers are able to connect sentence combinations to the length and structure of paragraphs。While their writing can be of advanced standard, it is not necessarily substantive。Advanced elementary writers are able to use a limited number of cohesive devices, and their writing may be lengthy or repetitive。They rely on patterns of oral presentation and writing styles in their mother tongue。These writers barely have a grasp of common structures and vocabulary associated with advanced levels。Native speakers unfamiliar with non-native writing can read their writing, but may have to put more effort into reading the text。If they try to complete tasks related to excellent level, their writing level will decline significantly。


中级水平写作者的特点是能够满足实务写作的需要,例如简单的讯息和信件、信息咨询以及便笺。In addition, they can ask and respond to simple questions in writing。这些写作者可以用语言进行创作,使用一系列松散连接起来的句子,就个人兴趣及社会需要的话题沟通简单的事实和观点。They write mainly in the present tense。在这个水平上,写作者使用可以让那些习惯非母语写作的读者理解的基本的词汇和结构来表达含义。


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Intermediate higher

Intermediate advanced level writers can meet all the practical writing needs of intermediate level writers。In addition, they can draft essays and brief summaries related to their work and/or school experiences。When writing about everyday events and situations, they are able to narrate and describe in different time frames。这些叙述和描写经常但不总是能够形成段落,并经常有迹象显示其未能涵盖一个或多个高级水平特点。For example, these writers failed to consistently use appropriate primary time markers and were thus unclear。The vocabulary, grammar and style of intermediate and advanced writers are basically the same as oral language。即使带有很多可能很明显的错误,Intermediate higher水平的写作一般来说可以为不习惯非母语写作的母语人士所理解,不过可能会有一些理解上的空白。

Intermediate medium

Intermediate level writers can meet some of the practical writing needs。他们能用连接松散的文字就个人喜好、日常惯例、普通事件以及其他个人话题写出简短、简单的通信、作文。They write in the present tense, but may refer to other time frames。The writing style is very close to oral presentation。Intermediate level writers demonstrate mastery of basic sentence structure and verb form。对这类写作的最佳定义是一系列松散连接在一起的独立句子及/或问题,少见有深思熟虑的结构。Native readers who are familiar with writing in a non-native language can easily understand the work of an intermediate writer。Intermediate medium水平写作者在试图完成高级水平的写作任务时,其写作质量及/或数量会下降,讯息可能含糊不清。

Intermediate elementary

Intermediate and elementary level writers can meet limited practical writing needs。They can write statements and list questions from familiar material。多数句子是所学过的词汇和结构的重新组合,是用基本词汇顺序组成的简短的简单对话风格的句子。They are written almost entirely in the present tense。Writing often consists of a few simple sentences, and the structure is often repeated。Topics are limited to highly predictive content areas and personal information。Vocabulary is sufficient to express basic needs。There may be some basic errors in grammar, word choice, punctuation, spelling, and combinations of non-alphabetic symbols。Native readers who are familiar with non-native writing can understand their writing, though this may require additional effort。Intermediate elementary水平写作者试图完成高级水平的写作任务时,他们的写作水平将明显下降,他们的信息可能会不完整。


Beginner writers are characterized by the ability to write lists and notes, mainly by writing words and phrases。They can provide limited stylized information in simple forms and documents。These writers can rewrite the material they practice to convey the simplest message。此外,他们能够誊写熟悉的词或短语,抄录字母表的字母或音节表的音节,或部分准确地重写基本字符。


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Junior high

Advanced level writers can accomplish a limited amount of basic practical writing using lists, text messages, postcards, and simple notes。With the material they have practiced, they are able to express themselves in the context of the language they are learning。Their writing concentrates on the ordinary elements of everyday life。Junior high写作者能够重组学过的词汇和结构,就非常熟悉的话题简单造句,但是不能始终保持成句写作。Due to a lack of vocabulary and/or grammar, writing at this level may only partially convey the writer's intention。Native speakers who are familiar with non-native writing can usually understand writing at an advanced level, but there may be gaps in understanding。

Junior middle

Beginner level writers can rewrite a certain number of words and phrases in context from memory。他们可以在简单的表格和文件上填写有限的信息以及其它基本的个人信息,例如姓名、数字及国籍。在使用有限的程式化语言写作经常练习的熟悉话题时,Junior middle水平写作者显示出很高的准确性。For less familiar topics, accuracy is significantly reduced。Errors in spelling or notation may occur frequently。Practical writing skills are rarely demonstrated。Even for those familiar with non-native writers, this level of writing may be difficult to understand。

Primary elementary

Primary elementary水平的写作者能够抄录或誊写熟悉的词或短语,在字母表体系中书写字母,在使用音节表或字符的语言中抄录和书写单独的基本笔画。如果时间充足并有熟悉的提示,他们能够凭记忆重写出数目非常有限的单个词语或熟悉的短语,但会出现错误。